Tất tần tật về Trợ động từ trong tiếng Anh

Trợ động từ (auxiliary verbs) là các các từ được theo sau bởi một động từ khác để tạo thành một câu hỏi, câu phủ định, thể bị động, thể nhấn mạnh hay hình thành một số thì (tenses), cách (mood) nào đó. Có 12 trợ động từ trong tiếng Anh: be, have, do, can, shall, will, may, must, need, ought (to), dare, used (to). Trong đó có 9 động từ còn được xếp vào loại Động từ khuyết thiếu (Modal verbs). Đó là các động từ can, may, must, will, shall, need, ought (to), dare và used (to). Cùng http://itienganh.net/ học cách sử dụng trợ động từ trong tiếng anh nhé.

I. Trợ động từ trong tiếng anh từ động từ thường

1. Trợ động từ trong tiếng Anh – Be/To be

Đây là động từ được dùng nhiều nhất trong tiếng Anh. Nó có thể đứng độc lập làm một động từ chính.

  • BE được sử dụng làm trợ động từ để hình thành các thì tiếp diễn (Continuous Tenses): Hiện tại tiếp diễn (The present continuous); Quá khứ tiếp diễn (the past continuous); Ở thì tương lai tiếp diễn (The future continuous) BE giữ nguyên

Ex: He is playing guitar now. Anh ấy đang chơi đàn ghita

They will be arriving here tomorrow. Họ sẽ tới đây vào ngày mai

  • BE được dùng làm trợ động từ trong các câu bị động (The Passive Voice)

Ex: My computer was broken yesterday Ngày hôm qua máy tính của tôi bị hư.

2. Trợ động từ trong tiếng Anh – Have

Khi đứng độc lập Have dùng để mô tả sở hữu hoặc cũng được dùng để mô tả khả năng, mô tả ngoại hình của 1 ai đó.

HAVE được dùng làm trợ động từ để tạo các thì hoàn thành (Perfect Tenses). “have” phải kết hợp với 1 động từ chính để tạo thành 1 cụm động từ hoàn chỉnh. Các trợ động từ have/has/had thường được dùng trong các thì hoàn thành: quá khứ hoàn thành, hiện tại hoàn thành, tương lai hoàn thành

Ex: Has he finished his dinner? Anh ấy đã ăn tối chưa?

3. Trợ động từ trong tiếng Anh – Do

“Do” có thể được dùng như là 1 động từ hành động đứng độc lập trong tất cả các thì. Khi được dùng như là 1 trợ động từ DO luôn luôn kết hợp với 1 động từ khác để tạo thành 1 cụm động từ hoàn chỉnh.

  • Trợ động từ “Do” thường được dùng trong các câu hỏi và câu phủ định.

Ex: She did not go to school today. Hôm nay cô ấy không tới trường.

Did you close the door? Bạn đóng cửa chưa?

  • Trợ động từ DO được sử dụng để hình thành Câu hỏi đuôi khi động từ trong câu chính là một động từ thường.

Ex: Mary doesn’t clean the floor, does she? Mary chưa lau nhà đúng không?

  • Trợ động từ DO được sử dụng để hình thành Thể Nhấn mạnh (Câu khẳng định)

Ex: He does write his name on the board. Anh ấy viết tên mình lên bảng.

II. Trợ động từ trong tiếng anh từ động từ khuyết thiếu

4. Trợ động từ trong tiếng anh – Can

CAN là một động từ khuyết thiếu, nó chỉ có 2 thì Hiện tại và Quá khứ đơn. CAN được dùng như một trợ động từ để hình thành một số cách nói riêng.

  • Diễn tả một khả năng, nghĩa là “có thể”
  • Trong tiếng anh giao tiếp, CAN được dùng thay cho MAY để diễn tả một sự cho phép và thể phủ định CANNOT được dùng để diễn tả một sự cấm đoán.
  • CAN cũng diễn tả một điều có thể xảy đến
  • CANNOT được dùng để diễn tả một điều khó có thể xảy ra
  • Khi dùng với động từ tri giác, CAN cho một ý nghĩa tương đương với thì Tiếp diễn (Continuous Tense).

Ex: I can eat 4 burgers in 20 minutes. Tôi có thể ăn 4 cái bánh burger trong 20 phút.

You can drink alcohol here but can not smoke. Tại đây bạn có thể uống rượu nhưng không được hút thuốc.

I think I can hear the sound of the mouse. Tôi nghĩ tôi đang nghe thấy tiếng chuột kêu.

COULD là thể quá khứ của CAN. COULD còn được dùng trong câu điều kiện.

Trong cách nói thân mật, COULD được xem như nhiều tính chất lịch sự hơn CAN. Could thường được sử dụng tại những nơi công cộng như: nhà hàng, khách sạn, ngân hàng…

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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